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Indigenous Studies

Indigenous Studies is an interdisciplinary field grounded in the languages, histories, geographies, and contemporary experiences of Indigenous peoples

Cite Your Sources

Your instructor should specify which citation style to use. Be sure to use the correct citation style.

Citation Styles:
APA 
MLA
Chicago
Other styles

Writing an annotated bibliography? Check the link for help and be sure to evaluate your sources.

Citing Elders

The formal APA, MLA, and Chicago style do not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. Work is being done to unpack citation and how it reinforces colonial voices and ways of knowing. For more information on the politics of citation please watch Decolonizing Citation by Bronwen McKie.

Norquest College has developed the following citation styles in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation, and we thank them for sharing their template for MLA and APA styles. We have added a few elements as recommended by our Elder in Residence Lekeyten. Our additions to the Norquest College guide are noted in red text. We also collaborated with the University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University to adapt a Chicago citation style. Please note all color coding is for your assistance in identifying citation components. Please do not actually use colored text in your work.

APA Style

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

In text:

The in-text citation format should follow the same guidelines as noted in the paraphrase and direct quote tabs: 

The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2004).

Reference:

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First names initials. (Elder)Nation/Community. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Year, Month Date. Territory Acknowledgement of where information was shared/collected.

For example: Lekeyten (Elder), Kwantlen First Nation. Community justice. personal communication. 2019, April 4. Shared on the traditional unceded territory of the Kwantlen, Musqueam, Katzie, Semiahmoo, Tsawwassen, Qayqayt and Kwikwetlem Peoples.   

MLA Style

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

In text:

The in-text citation format should be formatted as:

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... OR The nature of the place was... (Cardinal).

Work Cited:

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format: Author. Title. Date. Optional add-on. 

Last name, First names, Elder, Nation/Community. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Personal communication, Date Month Year. Territorial Acknowledgement of where the information was shared/collected.

For Example: Lekeyten, Elder, Kwantlen First Nation. Community Justice. Personal communication, 4 April 2019. Shared on the traditional unceded territory of the Kwantlen, Musqueam, Katzie, Semiahmoo, Tsawwassen, Qayqayt and Kwikwetlem Peoples.  


Chicago Style

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

First Footnote:

First Names Last Name (Elder), Nation, Topic/subject of communication if applicable, Personal communication, Territorial acknowledgement of where the information was shared, Month Date, Year.

Example: Lekeyten (Elder), Kwantlen First Nation, Community Justice, Personal communication, Shared on the traditional unceded territory of the Kwantlen, Musqueam, Katzie, Semiahmoo, Tsawwassen, Qayqayt, and Kwikwetlem Peoples, April 9, 2019.

Bibliography: 

Last Name, First Names (Elder), Nation. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Personal communication. Territorial acknowledgement of where the information was shared. Month Date, Year.

Example: Lekeyten (Elder), Kwantlen First Nation. Community Justice. Personal communication. Shared on the traditional unceded territory of the Kwantlen, Musqueam, Katzie, Semiahmoo, Tsawwassen, Qayqayt, and Kwikwetlem Peoples. April 9, 2019.

Please Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time. Please review the Authentic Engagement of First Nations and Metis Traditional Knowledge Keepers for guidance on initial Protocols when approaching Elders.

Lekeyten - KPU's Elder in Residence is available Wednesdays from 10 - 2 pm at the Surrey Gathering Place. No special protocol is required to meet with him during his scheduled "Coffee with Lekeyten" hours. For more formal meetings outside of "Coffee with Lekeyten" please review KPU's Protocol Guidelines or contact the Gathering Place

Style Guide Notes

APA includes the the following:

"Capitalize most terms related to Indigenous Peoples. These include names of specific groups (e.g., Cherokee, Cree, Ojibwe) and words related to Indigenous culture (e.g., Creation, the Creator, Elder, Oral Tradition, Traditional Knowledge, Vision Quest). The capitalization is intentional and demonstrates respect for Indigenous perspectives" (APA, 2019).