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Indigenous Studies

Indigenous Studies is an interdisciplinary field grounded in the languages, histories, geographies, and contemporary experiences of Indigenous peoples

Aboriginal Population Profiles

Aboriginal Peoples Facts Sheets

On March 14, 2016, Statistics Canada released the fact sheets on Aboriginal peoples in Canada’s provinces, from the publication Aboriginal Peoples Fact Sheets. These fact sheets present a statistical overview of the socioeconomic characteristics of Aboriginal peoples in each of the ten provinces. They include information on living arrangements of children, education, employment, income, housing, health and languages of the Aboriginal population.

Fact sheet links:

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for Newfoundland and Labrador

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for Prince Edward Island

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for Nova Scotia

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for New Brunswick

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for Quebec

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for Ontario

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for Manitoba

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for Saskatchewan

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for Alberta

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for British Columbia

 

On March 29, 2016, Statistics Canada released the fact sheets on Aboriginal peoples in Canada’s territories and Inuit regions, from the publication Aboriginal Peoples Fact Sheets. These fact sheets present a statistical overview of the socioeconomic characteristics of Aboriginal peoples two territories and five Inuit regions. They include information on living arrangements of children, education, employment, income, housing, health and languages of the Aboriginal population.

Fact sheet links:

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for Yukon

Aboriginal peoples: Fact sheet for Northwest Territories

Inuit: Fact sheet for Inuit Nunangat

Inuit: Fact sheet for Nunatsiavut

Inuit: Fact sheet for Nunavik

Inuit: Fact sheet for Nunavut

Inuit: Fact sheet for Inuvialuit region

Canadian Statistics - Demographics

The Various Aboriginal Concepts in Statistics Canada’s Data

There are many different ways of identifying Aboriginal peoples in Statistics Canada data. There is no single or "correct" definition of Aboriginal peoples. There are many different ways of looking at the data. The choice of a concept depends on what the data will be used for.

  • ​Aboriginal ancestry refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of a person’s ancestors. This refers to YOUR HISTORY, where your people came from.
  • Aboriginal identity refers to YOU and asks, Is this person an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis, or Inuk (Inuit)? For example, I may report a Cree ancestry because I have a great-grandparent who was Cree, but I do not consider myself to be an Aboriginal person.
  • People can also indicate if they are members of a First Nation/Indian band and/or if they are status Indians (Registered or Treaty Indians as defined by the Indian Act).
  • All of our data is self-reported. Respondents decide how to best answer the questions as they apply to them. 

     

    Excerpt from:

    Aboriginal Insight Newsletter - December 2014 [pp. 4-5]

    Aboriginal Liaison Program, Aboriginal Statistics Program, Statistics Canada

    Definition and Usage of Aboriginal ancestry of person (in Statistics Canada publications)

  • Aboriginal Statistics at a Glance   2010 and 2015 editions
    • Aboriginal Statistics at a Glance is a compilation of data on First Nations, Métis, and Inuit populations covering a variety of topics. Each subject is illustrated with a chart presenting key indicators, a plain language definition of the indicator and links to related data tables and published articles.
    • Data sources for Aboriginal Statistics at a Glance: 2nd Edition include the 2001 and 2006 censuses of population, the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, the Canadian Community Health Survey, the Adult Correctional Services Survey, the 2012 Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies, the Labour Force Survey, and the General Social Survey on Victimization and the Homicide Survey.

  • Registered Indian Population by Sex and Residence (annually from 1999 to current)

  • National Indigenous Peoples Day...by the numbers.
  • Canadian Demographics at a Glance   released in PDF and PowerPoint format.by Statistics Canada in February 2016.  It was previously released in HTML on June 19, 2014. Aboriginal data can be found in two sections. In Section three, aspects related to the composition of the Canadian population are analyzed, including Aboriginal identity, ethnocultural diversity, language, the labour force and families and households. Section four examines selected demographic characteristics for the provinces, territories and some subprovincial areas.

HTML: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-003-x/91-003-x2014001-eng.htm

PDF: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-003-x/91-003-x2014001-eng.pdf

PowerPoint: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/access_acces/alternative_alternatif.action?l=eng&loc=/pub/91-003-x/91-003-x2014001-eng.ppt

On April 16, 2019, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Harvesting activities among First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit: Time trends, barriers and associated factors, 2001-2017’. Harvesting activities such as hunting, fishing, trapping and gathering wild plants have been part of Aboriginal peoples’ ways of living for millennia. They have endured despite the impact of colonization, including the impacts of residential schools, relocation to permanent settlements and introduction of the wage economy. This paper examines trends in harvesting activities, specifically hunting, fishing or trapping and gathering wild plants or berries, among First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit using four cycles of the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2001, 2006, 2012 and 2017). It also explores self-reported barriers to participation in harvesting activities and associated factors.

PDF:            https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2019001-eng.pdf    

The Daily:      https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190416/dq190416d-eng.htm

Census 2011 & 2016

Overview of Census 2016

  •        Highest Census response rate ever (approx. 98%)
    •    this will allow release of high-quality data for almost all geographic areas
    •    excellent participation rate from on-reserve aboriginal communities which has not always been the case, so should be able to release data for almost all participating reserves
    • Goal is to release all the major Census products in 2017, which is much faster than before (release schedule)

Click here for an interactive infographic put together by the CBC on the Census 2016 “Where do you fit in Canada’s 35 million”.

2016 Census Topic - Aboriginal Peoples

Focus on Geography Series 2016 Census

Focus on Geography Series 2011 Census

              Provides a quick access to key results from the census at different levels of geography.

NHS Focus on Geography Series 2011 Census

Focusing on a selected geographic area, this product presents data highlights for each of the major releases of the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS). These data highlights are presented through text, tables and figures.  Series provides a quick access to key results from the NHS for different levels of geography and topics. These topics include: Aboriginal Peoples, Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity, Education, Labour, Income and Housing

2016 Census Data Tables - Aboriginal Peoples

Statistics Canada has released the Regional discussion report: Review of First Nations, Métis and Inuit questions on the census.

From September 2017 to February 2018, Statistics Canada undertook a series of regional discussions across the country to talk to First Nations people, Métis and Inuit. These discussions focused on the questions asked in the census and in other Statistics Canada surveys to produce data about First Nations people, Métis and Inuit.

The goal of this report is to summarize the feedback heard in the regional discussions. This feedback was used to prepare questions that will be tested in the 2019 Census Test.

PDF: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/41-20-0001/412000012019001-eng.pdf

The Daily: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190415/dq190415d-eng.htm

 

Statistics Canada has released theTechnical Report. The report deals with Aboriginal identity, Registered or Treaty Indian Status, Membership in a First Nation or Indian band, and Aboriginal ancestry. The report contains explanations of concepts, data quality, historical comparability with other sources, as well as information on data collection, processing and dissemination.

PDF:    https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/ref/98-307/98-307-x2016001-eng.pdf

 

GeoSearch. This is an interactive mapping application that makes it easy to find geographic areas in Canada for which census data are available. When you select an area you will notice below the map there are links to data products, analytical products, and maps that are available for your selected area. 

The Census Program Dissemination Project has released the following:

The links to the Census Program dissemination Project releases are located under the ‘Release and Concepts Overview, 2016 Census of Population’ heading on the ‘Reference materials’ landing page.

The purpose of the Release and concepts overview series is to provide an overview of:

  • the concepts, definitions and key indicators used by each of the 2016 Census of Population releases;
  • the products that will be available on each release day and later.

 

Census Products from the 2011 Census:

2011 National Household Survey (NHS) Aboriginal Population Profile

  • NHS is the replacement for the Long-form Census questionnaire

The aboriginal population and the Census

Aboriginal languages in Canada  1981 Census of Canada

Census of Canada, 1665 to 1871

  • The Census of  Canada, 1870-1871 (volume 4, "Introduction", pages lii to lxxxv​) includes a fairly lengthy discussion of aboriginal statistics gathered from various sources to that date and asserts that the total numbers of aboriginal people had been overstated in many accounts.  See box on Historical Statistics for more information.

Canadian Census Analyser

Canadian Census Analyser features census profiles for multiple levels of geography as far back as 1961, online analysis of public use microdata files 1971- , and postal code conversion files 1996-

Aboriginal Peoples Surveys

Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2017

Key Findings  https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/89-653-X

 

From January to June of 2017 Statistics Canada conducted the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey which collected information from First Nations people living off-reserve, Métis, and Inuit, aged 15 and over across Canada. Questions focused on key topics such as employment, skills and training, education, health, and cultural practices. 

With this information, Aboriginal organizations, communities, service providers, researchers  and governments will be able to provide appropriate programs and services across the country—for you, your family, and your community.

Answers are confidential. The Statistics Act protects respondents' information. This information cannot be disclosed without the respondents' consent or as authorized by the Statistics Act.

 

"The purpose of the APS is to provide data on the social and economic conditions of Aboriginal people in Canada. More specifically, its purpose is to identify the needs of Aboriginal people and focus on issues such as education, employment, health, language, income, housing and mobility"

The 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) is a national survey of First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit aged six years and over. The 2012 APS represents the fourth cycle of the survey and focuses on the topics of education, employment and    health. It also collects information on language, income, housing and mobility.

The 2012 APS collects unique and detailed data on education, employment and health, data which are not available from any other source. For example, although the 2011 National Household Survey collected data on level of education and on major field of study, the 2012 APS addresses additional topics such as number of schools attended, exposure to Aboriginal languages, school climate and support, frequency of reading, participation in extra-curricular activities, peer influences and plans for further schooling.  Lots of health related questions and is a better sources than the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS ) which had a very small sample of aboriginal people.

APS does NOT include on-reserve aboriginals (see FNIGC sources below for on-reserve coverage); Census enumeration of reserves is incomplete

2012 includes Q re: residential school attendance

On April 1, 2016, Statistics Canada released 10 new tables from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS). Data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, Education and Employment are now available on CANSIM at the national, provincial, territorial and Inuit region levels. The 10 tables are related to Education, Employment, and Aboriginal Languages spoken and understood. They provide data by age group, sex, and Aboriginal identity.

Available in CANSIM: tables 576-0009 - 576-0014, and 578-0001 - 578-0004 at:

http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a03?pattern=576-0009..576-00014&p2=31&retrLang=eng&lang=eng

  • Aboriginal Peoples Survey 1991
    • Community Profiles Statistical profiles are available for 600 Aboriginal communities including Indian reserves and settlements, and Inuit and Metis communities that participated in the 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.​

Aboriginal Children's Survey

Crime and Policing

 ‘Adult and youth correctional statistics in Canada, 2017/2018’. was released on May 9, 2019. This Juristat article provides a statistical overview of adults and youth admitted to and released from custody and community supervision in Canada in 2015/2016. Analysis is presented at the national as well as the provincial and territorial levels. Average counts and the incarceration rates are presented. Admissions and the characteristics of adults and youth in the correctional system (such as age, sex and Aboriginal identity) are also discussed.

 

PDF:            https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00010-eng.pdf

The Daily:      https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190509/dq190509c-eng.htm

 

Aboriginal data is not included in this release but it may be useful or interesting for you. On May 7, 2019, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Police-reported crime in rural and urban areas in the Canadian provinces, 2017’. This Juristat article presents information on the nature and extent of crime in the rural areas of the Canadian provinces. This includes analysis of recent trends in crime rates and severity in rural and urban areas, both at the national and provincial levels. The report also examines the specific nature and extent of crime in rural areas of the provincial North. Analysis uses police-reported data from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the Homicide Survey, as well as self-reported data from General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety (Victimization).

 

PDF:            https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00008-eng.pdf      

The Daily:      https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190430/dq190430g-eng.htm

 

Violent victimization and discrimination among visible minority populations, Canada, 2014
On April 12, 2018, Statistics Canada released ‘Violent victimization and discrimination among visible minority populations, Canada, 2014.’ This Juristat article presents information on the experiences of violent victimization among the visible minority population in Canada using self-reported data from the 2014 General Social Survey on Canadians' Safety (Victimization). In addition, characteristics of violent incidents are explored, along with experiences of discrimination and perceptions of safety. Note: Aboriginal people are included under the ‘non-visible minority’ group used in this article, but generally have a very different demographic and victimization profile than non-Aboriginal Canadians who are not visible minorities. See Tables 4 and 6.
Among the findings:
In 2014, the overall rate of violent victimization among visible minorities (55E incidents per 1,000 population) was significantly lower than among non-visible minorities (80 per 1,000) and that of Aboriginal people (163 per 1,000).
HTML: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54913-eng.htm
PDF: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54913-eng.pdf
The Daily: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/180412/dq180412d-eng.htm
*****************************
Violent victimization and discrimination by religious affiliation in Canada, 2014
On April 12, 2018, Statistics Canada released ‘Violent victimization and discrimination by religious affiliation in Canada, 2014.’ This Juristat article uses data from the 2014 General Social Survey on Canadians’ Safety (Victimization) to analyze self-reported experiences of victimization and discrimination among Canadians by their religious affiliation. Characteristics of violent incidents are examined—including whether victim reported to police—while information on the context surrounding experiences of discrimination is explored. In addition, religious affiliation is examined in relation to Canadians’ perceptions of safety and attitudes toward police performance.
Among the findings:
When asked about their confidence in the police, Christians and non-Christians generally had a similar level of confidence, and both groups had higher confidence than did individuals with no religious affiliation. However, Buddhists (31%) and individuals affiliated with Aboriginal spirituality (23%E) were less likely to have a ‘great deal’ of confidence compared to Christian individuals (48%).
HTML: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54913-eng.htm
PDF:http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54913-eng.pdf
The Daily: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/180412/dq180412d-eng.htm

 ‘Police-reported hate crime in Canada, 2015', a Juristat article released on June 13, 2017, examines the nature and extent of police-reported hate crime in Canada. This article includes information on police-reported hate crimes in 2015 targeting such groups as Aboriginal people. In addition, a trend analysis was done on police-reported hate crimes from 2010 to 2015. This analysis includes information on the characteristics of the offences, victims and accused of such police-reported hate crimes.

HTML:           http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14832-eng.htm

PDF:            http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14832-eng.pdf     

Police Reported Hate Crime in Canada, 2016

On April 25, 2018, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Police-reported hate crime in Canada, 2016’. This Juristat article examines the nature and extent of police-reported hate crime in Canada. Key topics include motivations for hate crime (e.g., race/ethnicity, religion, and sexual orientation), types of offences, geographical comparisons and accused/victim characteristics. The article uses data from the Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey which gathers data from police records.
Among the findings:
Police-reported hate crime against Aboriginal peoples continued to account for a relatively small proportion of hate crimes (2%), declining from 35 incidents in 2015 to 30 incidents in 2016.

*****************************

On February 16, 2017, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Family violence in Canada: A statistical profile, 2015’. This Juristat article profiles a general overview of family violence in Canada, intimate partner violence (including both spousal and dating violence partners), family violence against children, and family violence against seniors. This annual article is designed to help monitor changes in family violence over time and identify emerging issues. Section 1 includes data on Aboriginal people.

HTML:   http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14698-eng.htm    

PDF:    http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14698-eng.pdf

'Family violence in Canada: a statistical profile, 2014' can be found at:

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14303-eng.pdf

 

On March 1, 2017, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Youth correctional statistics, 2015/2016’. This Juristat article provides a statistical overview of youth under correctional supervision in Canada in 2015/2016. Analysis is presented at the national as well as the provincial and territorial levels. Average counts, intakes, admissions and the characteristics of youth in the correctional system (such as age, sex and Aboriginal identity) are discussed.

HTML:           http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14702-eng.htm    

PDF:            http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14702-eng.pdf    

For 'Youth Correctional Statistics in Canada, 2014/2015' click here.

 

On March 1, 2017, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Adult correctional statistics in Canada, 2015/2016’. This Juristat article provides a statistical overview of adults admitted to and released from custody and community supervision in Canada in 2015/2016. Analysis is presented at the national as well as the provincial and territorial levels. Average counts and the incarceration rates are presented. Admissions and the characteristics of adults in the correctional system (such as age, sex and Aboriginal identity) are also discussed.

HTML:           http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14700-eng.htm    

PDF:            http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2017001/article/14700-eng.pdf    

 

On June 28, 2016, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Victimization of Aboriginal people in Canada, 2014’. This Juristat article uses data from the 2014 General Social Survey on Victimization to present information on Aboriginal victimization, with a particular focus on violent victimization. Characteristics associated with these incidents, including possible risk factors, as well as consequences of victimization, reasons for reporting or not reporting the victimization to the police, perceptions of personal safety, and perceptions of the criminal justice system are also explored.

HTML:           http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14631-eng.htm  

PDF:            http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14631-eng.pdf 

 

On April 27, 2016, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Criminal victimization in the territories, 2014’ in its publication Juristat. This article presents the first results from the 2014 General Social Survey on Victimization in the territories. The analysis provides insight on the nature and extent of criminal victimization in the territories. The report also examines the factors associated with the risk of being the victim of a crime, the characteristics of spousal violence, the consequences of victimization, the reporting of incidents to police, feelings of safety and perceptions of the police.

HTML:           http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14470-eng.htm

PDF:            http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14470-eng.pdf

 

On June 13, 2016, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Perceptions of police performance in the territories, 2014’ in Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey. This paper examines the perceptions of residents in the territories of the performance of the police in their communities, using data from the 2014 General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization. The impact of geography, socio-demographic and neighbourhood characteristics on perceptions are also discussed.

Among the findings:

Aboriginal people living in the territories were less likely to state that police were doing a good job when compared to non-Aboriginal residents. In particular, Aboriginal people were considerably less likely than non-Aboriginal people to believe police were doing a good job enforcing the laws (43% compared to 59%) and promptly responding to calls (41% compared to 58%). 

HTML:           http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-652-x/89-652-x2016005-eng.htm

PDF:            http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-652-x/89-652-x2016005-eng.pdf

 

Evaluation of the First Nations Policing Program

Royal Canadian Mounted Police Annual Report to the Commissioner   

 

Police-reported hate crime in Canada, 2017

This Juristat article, released April 30, 2019, examines the nature and extent of police-reported hate crime in Canada. Key topics include motivations for hate crime (e.g., race/ethnicity, religion, and sexual orientation), types of offences, geographical comparisons, and victim/accused characteristics. The article uses data from the Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting Survey which gathers data from police records.

Among the findings:

Incidents against Aboriginal people account for a relatively small proportion of police-reported hate crimes (2%). The number of hate crimes targeting the Aboriginal population increased from 30 in 2016 to 31 in 2017. This represented 2.0 hate crimes per 100,000 Aboriginal people in Canada in 2017. In comparison, there were 67 hate crimes targeting the South Asian population in Canada, representing 3.5 hate crimes per 100,000 South Asians. There were also 61 police-reported hate crimes targeting the East or Southeast Asian population, amounting to 2.1 incidents per 100,000 East or Southeast Asians.

Over half (54%) of hate crimes targeting the East or Southeast Asian population were violent and 46% non-violent, with the most common being common assault (25%), or uttering threats (13%). Similarly, 53% of hate crime targeting Aboriginal people were violent, yet these tended to involve offences beyond common assault (16%), including assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm (11%), and uttering threats (11%).

 

For all types of hate crimes, almost a third of victims reported by police between 2010 and 2017 were female. However, violent incidents targeting the Muslim and Aboriginal populations are more likely than other types of hate crimes to involve

female victims. Of all victims of violent hate crimes targeting the Muslim population that were reported to police, 44% were women or girls, as was true for 44% of victims of hate crimes against the Aboriginal population. For all other types

of hate crimes, female victims accounted for between 18% and 40% of victims.

 

PDF:            https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00008-eng.pdf      

The Daily:      https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190430/dq190430g-eng.htm

 

 ‘Homicide in Canada, 2017’ was  released by Statistics Canada November 2018. This Juristat article presents 2017 homicide data. Changes in the rates of homicide in Canada over time are examined as well as the characteristics of homicides committed in 2017. It presents information on the age and sex of homicide victims, the methods used to commit homicides (including the use of firearms), whether the homicide was determined to be gang-related, the relationship of the accused to the victim as well as other characteristics of the accused. In addition, information is presented on homicide victims and accused who were identified as Aboriginal.

Among the findings:

While only representing an estimated 5% of the Canadian population, Aboriginal people accounted for 24% of all homicide victims in 2017. This proportion has remained relatively unchanged since the first release of complete Aboriginal identity information for both male and female victims in 2014.

By the end of 2017, police services had solved 79% of 2017 homicides involving an Aboriginal victim compared to 63% for non-Aboriginal victims; however, differences emerged depending on the sex of the victim. Just over three quarters (76%) of homicides involving an Aboriginal female victim were solved by police compared to 84% for non-Aboriginal female victims. In previous years, solve rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal female victims have been similar.

HTML:           https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54980-eng.htm

PDF:            https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54980-eng.pdf

The Daily:      https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/181121/dq181121a-eng.htm

Homicide in Canada, 2015, ’. This Juristat article released on November 23, 2016, presents 2015 homicide data. Short and long-term trends in homicide are examined at the national, provincial/territorial and census metropolitan area levels. Gang-related homicides, firearm-related homicides, intimate partner homicides, and homicides committed by youth are also explored. This article also presents a special analysis of the circumstances surrounding homicides of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal females committed by 'casual acquaintances' from 1980 to 2015.

'Homicide in Canada, 2014' presents new data on the nature and extend of homicides involving Aborigianl victims and accused persons.  The year 2014 marks the first cycle of collection of Homicide Survey data for which complete information regarding Aboriginal identitiy has been reported for both victims and accused persons, regardless of gender.  Among the findings:

  • From 2001 to 2014 the average rate of homicides involving Aboriginal female victims was 6 times higher than that of homicides wehre female victims were not Aboriginal.
  • In 2014, among the provinces were police reported at least once homicide of an Aboriginal victim in 2014, the rate of homicides involving Aboriginal victims was highest in Manitoba, followed by Alberta.
  • The overall rate of Aboriginal persons accused of homicide in Canada was 10 times higher than the rate for non-Aboriginal accused persons in 2014.

 

Women and Children

 

On February 23, 2016, Statistics Canada released the chapter from Women in Canada entitled “First Nations, Métis and Inuit Women”, which explores the diverse circumstances and experiences of Aboriginal women in Canada. Overall, the chapter highlights demographic characteristics, families, housing, knowledge of Aboriginal languages, employment, income, education, and health. Where appropriate, comparisons have been made between the Aboriginal female population and the non-Aboriginal female population as well as the Aboriginal female population and Aboriginal male population. Wherever possible, information is provided for First Nations, Métis and Inuit women separately. 

HTML:     http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2015001/article/14313-eng.htm 

PDF:            http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2015001/article/14313-eng.pdf

 

On April 13, 2016, Statistics Canada released the article entitled “Living arrangements of Aboriginal children aged 14 and under, 2011”. This study uses data from the National Household Survey (NHS) to examine the living arrangements of Aboriginal children aged 14 and under, and includes results about the proportion of Aboriginal children who lived with lone parents, with their grandparents, or in a stepfamily. The study also provides key statistics about Aboriginal foster children.

HTML:     http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2016001/article/14547-eng.htm

PDF:            http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2016001/article/14547-eng.pdf

On April 17, 2019, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Canadian residential facilities for victims of abuse, 2017/2018’. This Juristat article profiles Canadian residential facilities for victims of abuse and their residents. The article provides a one-day ‘snapshot’ of available services and the characteristics of the residents being served, including women, men, and accompanying children. It also includes information on annual admissions, occupancy rates and capacity, turn-aways, funding and repairs, and challenges facing residential facilities for victims of abuse and their residents. Information is presented at the provincial, territorial or regional level, as well as according to urban and rural geographies.

This article uses data from the Survey of Residential Facilities for Victims of Abuse (SRFVA). The SRFVA frame covers all residential facilities primarily mandated to serve victims of abuse.

Among the findings:

According to the latest Canadian Census of Population, 4% of Canadian women aged 18 and older and 8% of children aged 0 to 17 are Aboriginal. In the Survey of Residential Facilities for Victims of Abuse, 86% of facilities, accounting for 91% of residents, reported the Aboriginal identity of their residents as of snapshot day. More than one in five (22%) women aged 18 and over, and one in four (25%) children residing in facilities for victims of abuse on that day were Aboriginal.

Over half (57%) of the residential facilities that reported the services they provide to vulnerable populations offer culturally sensitive services that accommodate the unique needs of Aboriginal persons. For example, these services may recognize traditional healing methods and Aboriginal cultural norms and beliefs. At 24%, Quebec reported the lowest proportion of facilities offering such services. In other jurisdictions the proportion of residential facilities that offered culturally sensitiveservices ranged between 51% and 100% (Table 4). Quebec had the second lowest rate of Aboriginal residents staying for reasons of abuse on snapshot day (7%), after Prince Edward Island (0%).

Nationally, 30 (6%) residential facilities indicated they were located on a reserve. Provincially, Ontario (7), Quebec (6), British Columbia (5), Alberta (4) and Manitoba (4) accounted for the majority of on reserve facilities, while another 4 facilitieswere located in the Atlantic region. The majority (27 of 30) of facilities located on reserve were short-term facilities.

HTML:           https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00007-eng.htm

PDF:            https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2019001/article/00007-eng.pdf

Infographic:    https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/11-627-M2019027

The Daily:      https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190417/dq190417d-eng.htm

Education

 

On May 4, 2017, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Young men and women without a high school diploma’ in Insights on Canadian Society. In this paper, multiple sources of data are used to study the profile and labour market outcomes of young men and women aged 25 to 34 without a high school diploma. The data sources include the Labour Force Survey (LFS), the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) and the Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD).

Among the findings:

Aboriginal people (First Nations living off reserve, Métis and Inuit) were more likely to have less than a high school diploma. Specifically, 20% of Aboriginal men and 16% of Aboriginal women did not have a high school diploma. Among immigrants, the percentages were 7% for men and 5% for women; among non-Aboriginal men and women who were born in Canada, the percentages were 9% and 5%, respectively.

HTML:              http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2017001/article/14824-eng.htm

PDF:                http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2017001/article/14824-eng.pdf   

 

 
 

 

Employment & Labour Force

Employment

Employment of First Nations men and women living off reserve – This paper uses the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to assess the employment characteristics of First Nations men and women, including occupation, industry and full-time/part-time employment. A number of other outcomes, influenced by these characteristics, are further explored, such as job satisfaction, skills, health, presence of disability, and measures of economic well-being such as food security.

 

DF:            https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2019004-eng.pdf 

The Daily:      https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190613/dq190613f-eng.htm

 

Employment characteristics of Métis women and men aged 25 to 54 in Canada – This paper uses the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to assess the employment characteristics of Métis men and women.  A number of other outcomes, influenced by these characteristics, are further explored, such as employment rates, employment income, education, occupation and employment types, economic instability, and self-reported mental health.

PDF:            https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2019002-eng.pdf

The Daily:      https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190613/dq190613e-eng.htm        

 

Labor Force

Inuit participation in the wage and land-based economies in Inuit Nunangat – For Inuit, the term 'livelihood' encompasses work in the wage economy and in the labour that connects them with the land, their culture and their community. The results from the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey presented in this paper highlight how important it is to include land-based economy in any examination of the labour market. Furthermore, these findings suggest the need for policies and programs aimed at improving Inuit employment and related economic outcomes.

PDF:            https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2019003-eng.pdf 

The Daily:      https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190613/dq190613d-eng.htm

On January 8, 2015, Statistics Canada released updated CANSIM tables from the Labour Force Survey (LFS) including data for the off-reserve Aboriginal population. LFS data are used to produce the well-known unemployment rate as well as other standard labour market indicators such as the employment rate and the participation rate. The LFS also provides employment estimates by industry, occupation, public and private sector, hours worked and much more.

The eight tables listed below provide data for the years 2007 through 2015 by Aboriginal or non-Aboriginal identity. Table 282-0227 (unemployment rates) also has data for First Nations and Métis separately.

CANSIM tables

Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by Aboriginal group, sex and age group, Canada, selected provinces and regions, annual (Persons),  2007 to 2015          282-0226

Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by detailed Aboriginal group, sex and age group, Canada and selected regions, annual (Persons),  2007 to 2015     282-0227

Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by Aboriginal group, educational attainment and age group, Canada and selected regions, annual (Persons),  2007 to 2015        282-0228

Labour force survey estimates (LFS), employment by Aboriginal group, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), sex and age group, annual (Persons),  2007 to 2015        282-0229

Labour force survey estimates (LFS), employment by Aboriginal group, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and age group, Canada and selected regions, annual (Persons), 2007 to 2015        282-0230

Labour force survey estimates (LFS), employment by Aboriginal group, National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S), sex and age group, annual (Persons), 2007 to 2015        282-0231

Labour force survey estimates (LFS), employment by Aboriginal group, National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S) and age group, Canada, selected provinces and regions, annual (Persons), 2007 to 2015        282-0232

Labour force survey estimates (LFS), average hourly and weekly wages and average usual weekly hours by Aboriginal group and age group, Canada, selected provinces and regions, annual (Number), 2007 to 2015        282-0233

 

On March 16, 2017, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Aboriginal People Living Off Reserve and the Labour Market: Estimates from the Labour Force Survey, 2007 to 2015’. This report provides an up-to-date overview of the labour market involvement of the off-reserve Aboriginal population in Canada's ten provinces during and after the 2008/2009 economic downturn, as compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Using annual averages from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), covering the period of 2007 to 2015, the main focus is on Aboriginal people in the core working ages (25 to 54 years), although youth (aged 15 to 24 years) and older adults (aged 55 years and older) are considered separately. In addition to Aboriginal group, labour market indicators are distinguished by gender, geography (province/region of residence), education, lone parenthood, and marital status. The distribution of work characteristics (e.g., self-employment, sector of employment, usual work hours, wages, job tenure, industry, and occupation) by Aboriginal group are also explored.

HTML:           http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/71-588-x/71-588-x2017001-eng.htm

PDF:            http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/71-588-x/71-588-x2017001-eng.pdf

 

Booklets

Labour market experiences of First Nations people living off reserve: Key findings from the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey

HTML:              https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2018003-eng.htm  

PDF:                https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2018003-eng.pdf 

The Daily:         https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/181126/dq181126a-eng.htm?HPA=1

 

Labour market experiences of Métis: Key findings from the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey

HTML:              https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2018002-eng.htm  

PDF:                https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2018002-eng.pdf 

The Daily:         https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/181126/dq181126b-eng.htm?HPA=1

 

Labour market experiences of Inuit: Key findings from the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey

HTML:              https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2018004-eng.htm  

PDF:                https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2018004-eng.pdf 

The Daily:         https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/181126/dq181126c-eng.htm?HPA=1

 

 

Infographics

Off-reserve First Nations people entering the labour force

HTML:              https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-627-m/11-627-m2018045-eng.htm  

PDF:                https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-627-m/11-627-m2018045-eng.pdf  

 

Self-employment among Métis

HTML:              https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-627-m/11-627-m2018047-eng.htm   

PDF:                https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-627-m/11-627-m2018047-eng.pdf   

 

Harvesting and handicraft activities among Inuit

HTML:              https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-627-m/11-627-m2018046-eng.htm   

PDF:                https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-627-m/11-627-m2018046-eng.pdf  

 

 

Interactive map (data visualization product)

Labour market experiences of First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit, Canada, 2017: Methods used to look for work, reasons for difficulty finding work, and things that would help find work

HTML:              https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/71-607-x/71-607-x2018010-eng.htm

 

 

2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey—Nunavut Inuit Supplement

The Daily:         https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/181126/dq181126d-eng.htm

 

Aboriginal Peoples Survey, 2017: Concepts and Methods Guide

HTML:              https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2018001-eng.htm   

PDF:                https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2018001-eng.pdf  

 

On May 18, 2016, Statistics Canada released the article ‘Literacy and numeracy among off-reserve First Nations people and Métis: Do higher skill levels improve labour market outcomes?’ in its publication Insights on Canadian Society. This article examines the literacy and numeracy skills of off‑reserve First Nations and Métis adults, focusing on the factors and labour market outcomes associated with higher skill levels. In this study, individuals in the higher range for literacy and numeracy are defined as those who scored level 3 or higher (out of 5 levels) in tests administered by the 2012 Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC).

HTML:           http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2016001/article/14630-eng.htm

PDF:            http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2016001/article/14630-eng.pdf

Historical Census Data

Historical Statistics

The Census of  Canada, 1870-1871 (volume 4, "Introduction", pages lii to lxxxv​) includes a fairly lengthy discussion of aboriginal statistics gathered from various sources to that date and asserts that the total numbers of aboriginal people had been overstated in many accounts. See excerpts below (note that there are many OCR errors from this cut-and-paste which would need to be corrected by comparing with scanned version).

______________________

p. lii

The figures given above (by the Censuses of 1871) include the aboriginal population, ascertained by the regular process of enumeration, of the Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island ; but there are no regular Censuses of these populations for the portions of British North America in which they are predominant. There is no aboriginal population on the Island of Newfoundland, as the few Indian families, occasionally met with, belong to the tribes of the coast of Labrador (a part of which is annexed to Newfoundland), or to the Mlcmac groups of the southern coasts of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

It Is of importance, both In a statistical and ethnographical point of view, to establish the approximate number of the whole aboriginal race of these vast territories of British North America, of which they were the first occupants and consequently the first proprietors.

 

Three statements. Censuses they might be called, of the aboriginal population within certain named dlstrlcts, have been mentioned In the preceding pages, the numbers having been ascertained at three different periods of the history of colonization in this country. Although incomplete, they have considerable value, inasmuch as they bear the character of the comparative exactitude which the subject admits of, and are, therefore, the numerical expression of the amount of population in a savage state which a certain extent of territory will maintain, under given circumstances, by the produce of hunting and fishing. Certain tribes mentioned cultivated maize, or Indian corn, pumpkins and beans, but any one studying the conditions of such cultivation described in the writings of missionaries and discoverers, will see at once that these resources, in the best yielding seasons, could not dispense with 

 

p. liv

having recourse to hunting and fishing; and, besides, that this cultivation would only take place where the sea fishing of the maritime coasts, or where the hunting ground was wanting in extant or products, 

 

Most of the estimates of the aboriginal population made by both ancient and modem writers, from information given by Indians themselves, or by travellers and traders, are full of exaggeration, which has been seldom discovered by criticism, so difficult is it to realize as correct, the fact of the enormous extent of territory necessary to supply man with food by the chase.

 

It is thus that at and after the time of Champlain, the population of the Huron Nation was estimated at 30,000 and upwards. Champlain himself fell into this error, which he, however, corrects In a manner, by saying that that nation had only 2,000 warriors, (which means about 10,000 souls). And, In fact, a regular census made by the missionaries in 1639—that Is, at the period of the greatest concentration of the Hurons —showed at that time 32 villages, 700 lodges, (among the settled Huron-Iroquois the villages were composed of arched lodges serving for a greater or lesser number of families), 2,000 fires, 12,000 persons. (Relation de1640, page 62). 

 

It should be mentioned that the Hurons cultivated the soil, fished in Lake Huron, and hunted over a certain extent of uninhabited woods to the east of their settled grounds. The war of extermination which was waged among the different tribes of the Huron-Iroquois race, inhabiting tho villages around Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron and vicinity, caused the almost complete extinction of tlie Hurons In 1648 and 1649, and reduced the numbers of the other tribes to such a point that the confederation of the five Iroquois nations, the most powerful aboriginal organization known, amounted, in 1665 and 1677, notwithstanding the annexions of the remainder of other tribes to only a few thousand souls. 

 

The population of the five nations was regularly ascertained In 1665 by the Jesuit Missionaries, and in 1677 by Wentworth Greenhaigh, in a tour of investigation for that purpose made on account of the British Government. The summary of these two enumerations may be found, the first in tho Relation of 1605, pages 10 and 11, the second in the London Archives.

 

In 1665, the Anniegues (Mohawks) counted 400 warriors ; the Onneyouts (Oneidas) 140 warriors; the Onnontagues (Onondagas) 300 warriors ; Oiogouens (Cayugas) 300 varriors; and the Sonnontouans (Senecas) 1,500 warriors : in all 3,340 warriors, or 11,700 souls. 

 

Tho enumeration of 1677 is thus summarized : Maquaes (Mohawks) 5 villages, 96 lodges, 300 warriors j Onyades (Oneidas) 1 village, 100 lodges, 200 warriors ; Onondagos, 2 villages, 164 lodges, 350 warriors ; Caiougos (Cayugas) 3 villages, 100 lodges, 300 warriors; Senecques (Senecas) 4 villages, 324 lotlges, 1,000 warriors ; in all 2,150 warriors, or about 10,750 souls. 

 

Before examining the three most important documents we possess relative to the aboriginal population of old, it may be interesting to add a document bearing every mark of exactitude. The document relates to the year 1745 and is among the Paris Archives. 

 

<proof read OCR text to here>

 

p. lvi

The missionaries, the Abbe Laloutre and Abbd Maillard, and Fathers Lacorne and De I'Estage, give an account of the Micmacs, of whom they ascertained the existence in Acadia (Nova Scotia^ of 200 families; in Isle Royale (Cape Breton), 80 famUies; in Miramichi, 195 families, and In Restlgouche, 60 families; in all 535 families, or about 2,407 souls. Among the Indians the mean Is about 4-5 individuals to eaoh family, and as ths number of men fit to bear armsMs a little greater than that of tho 

families, the number of warriors is multiplied by 5 and of the families by 4^ to arrive at the population. It is at those rates, that, when needed, the population is calculated in the following pages.

The broad facts which sprbg from the examination of the conditions of the savage ^tate in this country, are :

l: That tlia roost fertile soils aro not those which. In general, yield most support to those engaged In hunting ; that the fisheries, and specially on the maritime coast, are tlie most abundant of tlie natural sources of supply found by man in a savage state. It is tlie Indians most favourably situated in respect to soil and climate, who supple-

ment the food obtained by hunting and fishing, by cultivation. On the other hand the Esquimaux, whose territory Is restricted to the waste and desolate shores of the frozen sea, manage to derive a rough abundance from the icebound watei-s ; 

. 2. That Indian populations living exclusively by hunting and fishing, cannot iacreaae beyond certain very restricted limits, governed by the ratio between the number of Inhabitants and the superficies Inhabited. Below this ratio they descend period- ically by famine, disease, oi- war, oscillating in this way, between an almost deter- minable maximum (the circumstances being known) and an indeterminable minimum. The mildness of the climate lias a gi-eat bearing on this question, If not In actually 

adding to the natural I'esources, at least In lessening the wants ;

3. Tliat Indian populations, keeping to the habits of hunting ti-ibes, diminish in number in tlie ratio of the extent and frequency of their relations with civilized nations, by the destruction of their prlmitivo means of existence, and tlie Introduction of vices and diseases, or by absorption, In the creation of a half breed race.

To decide as to the greater or less value of the figures given respecting the Indian population of a territorial division. In the absence of a regular Census, these elemen'ts of criticism must be taken into account. 

The first of the statements of Indian population referred to, dates from 1611. It waa prepared by a Jesuit missionary, and inserted in the Rdation of that.year, being the first of thia series of admii-able letters which constitute the most valuable source of InformatiOTi for tlie history of the early days of Canadian colonization.

The eountry inhabited by the ti-ibes mentioned in that Rdation, who all belonged to the great Algonquin family, affbixled good hunting and superior fishing. The Souri- quois (tlie Micmacs of the pi'esent day) inhabited what now constitutes the Provinces of JNova Scotia and Prince Edward Isknd, the littoral of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the Provincea of New Brunswick and Quebec, and the eastern watersheds of that region. They were about 3,500, and their territory then covered a superficies of about 46,000 square miles (Engjli^). 

 

p. lvi​i

The Etiiniinquois (now the Maldchites) occupied the whole valley of the St. John River in New Brunswick and part of the State of Malne,^extendlug into and Including all the Interior, as far as the River St. Lawrence, taking In that part of the valley of the St. Lawrence which fronts on the course of the St. John River and tributaries. They numbered about 2,500, and their territory covered, then, a superficies equal to about 40,000 square miles; but their maritime fisheries were leas extensive than,those of the Souriquois. '

The Kenlbdquls (now the Abenakls) occupied part of the States of Maine, Ver- mont, and New Hampshire, the States of Massachusetts and Connecticut and all the southern valley of the St. Lawrence, from the River Chaudldre to the Iroquois territory, and even hunted on the littoral of the north shore of the St. Lawrence; they numbered 3,000, and their territory covered a superficies of about 55,000 square English miles. Their coast fishing, although of great value, was much less important than those of the Souriquois and Etamlnquois. 

The Montagnets belonge<:l to the Abenakls family, aud their hunting grounds were In tho mountainous parts of New Hampshire and Vermont, and In that part of the Province of Quebec now known as tlie Eastern Townships, and the District of Be.auce. They numbered 1,000 souls, and occupied about 20,000 square miles of country, but without fisheries. We have, then. In a country containing one of the most abundant hunting and fishing grounds, and which Is, therefore, one of the most sultiible t-o support a savage population, during a period of prosperity and In an age in which no foreign influence had come to disturb the primitive condition of these tribes, 10,000 Inhabitants occupying about 160,000 square miles of territory, being one Inhabitant to 16 square miles, or 41 square kllomdtres. And for the Souriquois. separately, one inhabitant for about 13 square miles, or about 31 square kllomdtres.

The two other statemente of Indian population, given above, relate to the years 1736 and 1763. The first is a memoir deposited In .the Paris Archives, written by an oificer of the French Government, whose name is not given; the second Is by Sir William Johnson, and forms part of the English documents entitled. Plantations General Papers. 

I t is very interesting to compare these two estimates of the number of Indians, made in respect to tho same tribes and the same territories at an interval of more than a quarter of a century. We give the summarized table of the information contained in these two memoirs, grouped in such a way as to admit of comparison. Both memoirs give only the number of wai-rlors, that Is, about the fifth of the total population, which may thus be determined, in round numbers, as 79,375 souls, according to the French, and fifty-nine 

thousand nine hundred according to the English memoir, or rather 78,000 by adding the enumeration of the tribes of the Hlinoia and of the Sioux, Assinibolnes and part of the Abdnakis, wanting In the English memoirs. 

 

p. lx

 

TABLE made up from the Memoirs of 1736 and 1763 on the Aboriginal population of certain territories in North America, now situated partly in the United States of America and partly In Canada. 

 

p. lxii

 

 In order to compare these two memoirs, tlitre must first be added to the sum contained in the English memoir, the numbers representing the clans not enumerated in it, namely: The Abenakis of the St. John River, iOO warriori; the Illinois, 400 warriors, end the Sioui-Asslnlboines, 2,638 warriors ; in all, 3,620 warriors,.repr.a«en»- ing a population ef about 18,100 souls. Adding this number to the totfd ftmonnt of 69,900 for the year 1763, thsro Is shown a total of 78,000, as ti^tkiaai 79,3f 6 for this

•year 1736, or a.decrease of 1,875 on. the whole of this populatiou.

The superficies occupied by these tribes Is the same for both pariods, abotft 1,000,000 square miles (2,590,000 kllomdtres) for that part of the population situated in the United States; including the States and territories mentioned In the Table. Tkn aboriginal population of this territory numbering, by the complete memoir, 61,800 in 1736, gives 1 inhabitant for each 16 square miles; but very unequally distributed, varying between a minimum of 14 miles and a maximum -of 28 miles per head ; and for the portion of the territory situated on the Canadian side composed of localities enumerat«d in the Table, in all nearly 650,000 square miles(1,633,000 kllomdtres) the aboriginal pppn-

 

latlon, which in 1736 was 17,576 souls, gives about one Inhabitant to each 37 square miles. From 1736 to 1763 the aboriginal population mentioned in the two memoirs had, a>s a whole, undergone a total diminution of upwards of 1,376 souls; But it must •be remarked that thia diminution (as well as the changes to lesser numbers caused by migrations) took place In the most densely populated territory, (where the hunting grounds were 14 miles square per head). The population on the Canadian side, hunting over 37 square miles per head, increased by about 9,275 souls during that interval, while the other, on the .American side, taken as a whole, had lost 10,650. In the United States again the tribes who cultivated the land and were possesseil of 28 miles per head of hunting ground, have Increased when the others diminished. The increase on the Canadian side Is due principally to the immigration from the United States; for ft is a fa<!t, ascertained since the North American tribes have been known,that they, in the long run, and taken as a whole, remain stationary, in point of population, when'they do not diminish'. The immigration took place in consequence of the territories on the Canadian side having been depopulated by the wars of extermination of the preceding period. 

 

By the Census of 1871, an exact enumeration has for the first time been made of the •aboriginal population within the limits of the Province of Prince Edward Island (323), of Nova Scotia (1,666), of New Brunswick (1,403), of Quebec (6,988), and of Ontario 

(13,'978), showing a total for these five Provinces of 23,368.

However, as the Census has rooorded this population' only by localities and not by tribes,it has been thought desirable to supply this deficiency, and at the same time to try to establish the number of the Indigenous population throughout the wholo exiwnt of the British possessions In North America, together with the approximate extent of the superficies Inhabited by each of the tribes, or groups of tribes; the result of -which will be found summarized In the Table which follows. The Information has been di-awn from the Oensus of 1871, from the writings aud notes of the missionaries ; from reports, works and memoirs published at difierent periods, and from details received, viva voce, from persons who have been In Intimate relations with these clans. Tlie pai-t of the indigenous population, of which the least is known, is that in BritisJi

Columbia. For this reason, as Is usual In such cases, their numbers have almost always

 

p. lxiv

been exaggerated. These tribes belong exclusively to the Dine race and have been classi- fied according to the excellent division made by Dr. Latham. (The Natural History oj the Varieties of Man). The part which is now best known, outside of the limits of tho older Provinces, is that on the territory of the Athabaska-Mackenzie, thanks to the admirable paper published In 1874 by the Reverend Father Petltot, Oblat missionary. 

It would be impossible to enumerate all the names given to the indigenous tribes and sub-tribes of North America, nor the languages that have been counted out of dialects of the same mother tongues, very frequently the same small groups of nomads have had different names bestowed on them, from their having been encountered In different places by different travellers. The names given In the follo-wlng Table are those sanc- tioned by history or by the authority of ethnograplieis to mark the distinct groups; there aro added to each, letters indicating the race to which the tribe belongs.

All the aboriginal families of British America ai-e divided Into four races. These four races are : 1. That of the Esquimaux, or Innok (plural Innoit). 2. That called the Ddnd-Dindjld. 3. That of the Algonquins, or the Algic race. 4. That of the Huron-Iroquols. - .

In the following Table, letters are placed after the names of the tribes, to indicate to which of the four great i-aces each tribe belongs ; AL. for the Algonquin race; ir. i. for the Huron-Iriquois race; D. D. for the Ddnd-Dindjld race ; and IN. for the "Esquimaux race. (Innok.Inncrit.) 

The word villagier has been made to indicate the mode of living in villages which has been adopted by several of the aboriginal tribes or sub-tribes in the settled parts of the country. These villagiers almost always engage a little in hunting and fishing, in cultivation of the land ; but most maintain themselves chiefly by the exercise of various Industries, such as the dressing of skins, the making of snow shoes, mocassins and fancy articles prepared by the women. In certain places the men work in tho lumber shanties, and serve its guides and carriers in exploKitions or hunting excursions. Some have become well-to-do farmers. .

The small Map which accompanies this Table is given to enable the reader to easily form an idea of the territory occupied by each aboriginal group, of the relative extent of the hunting grounds and of their situation as to the maritime shores or fisheries of the inteiior. The figures of reference pertain alike to the Table and the map.

It is scarcely necessary,to say that the hunting grounds of each Indian tribe are not actually mai-ked off by precise and invariable limits, like those which divide the Pro- vinces of an organized country from one another, and that, therefore, the figures, beyond those taken from the Census of 1871, are only approximate. As to the calculations of the superficies, they .have, in common \ritli the rest of the work, been very carefully made, and it Is confidently believed they do not yield in point of exactitude to the estimates made from time to time (which .all necessarily vary) of the superficies of the unsurveyed regions of the American continent. From the total superficies, shown in the Table by tribal occupancy, and given in detail hereafter, for each Province, the bays and the great estuaries have been eliminated. Newfoundland and Anticostl, which have no aboriginal population, are not Included In the superficies of tho Table, but are after- wards mentioned; Newfoundland separately, Anticosti in the superficies of Quebec 

 p. lxvi

TABLE of the Aboriginal Population of Canada, with the Superficies in square miles of the hunting and .fishing grounds occupied by the different tribes, the whole referring to the year 1871. 

 

 

p. lxx

It will bo seen that taking the whole of the aboriginal population of British North America, including the few tribes who live chiefly by agricultural and Industrial pur- suits in the settled Provinces, as •well as the tribes placed in exceptionally unfavorable conditions in Arctic climates, the mean inhabited superficies is 34 square miles per head. Eliminating from the calculation these two extremes in the scale of comparison, the

mean falls to about 25 square miles per head, the minimum being about 10 ^square miles per head; the maximum being found In the most rigorous climates, and the minimum exclusively whei-e there are abundant sea coast fisheries. In the b^t hunting grounds, with a temperate climate, in the absence of extensive fisheries and of cultivation of the soil, the increase of the Indian population to a larger number than 1 inhabitant to 15 square miles cau-ses misery and disease, or incursions upon neighbour- ing territories and consequent warfare.

Sir George Simpson, in 1857, in his replies to the Special Committee of the British House of Commons appointed to enquire at that date into the affairs of the Hudson's Bay Company, again points out (Page 58 oftJie Report) the fact of these periodical oscilla^ tlon.s of Increase and decrease among the Indians. He points on*; that the tribes of the Western woods, after having boon decimated by disease for several years, were ac that time passing through a period of increase, whilst the prairie tribes were at the same time suffeiing from decrease caused by tribal wars and disea.se.

The information given in the preceding Table and the small chart accompanying It, may be thus summarised :— ^

As regards RACES, there are iqioii British North American territory :—

 

+ Chart [formatting of this chart did not reproduce properly when cutting-and-pasting]

 

+ Inset map showing regions of different aboriginal groups

 

p. lxxii

 

+ Chart [Note formatting of this chart did not reproduce properly when cutting-and-pasting]​

The testimony given to the Special Committee of the British Commons in 1857, by Sir George Simpson, who was for thirty-seven years Governor of the Hudson Bay Territories in America, has been referred to above. Sir George at the same time laid before the Committee a Memorandum prepared by the officers of the Company, as to the population of the trading eountry covered by their forts ; that is, the aboriginal population of 1858 In Labrador, the still unsettled northern parts of Quebec and Ontario, all Rupert's Land, the Athabaska-Mackenzie, British Columbia, the coasts and Islands in Russian America bordering on British Columbia, the American territories of Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and part of the teriitory of Montana,* As this Memorandum was furnished by the Hudson Bay Company, it ]^>os.se.sses such importance that ic is deemed desirable to reprint it here in fidl. .

It should lie remarked here that tho fifteen years which have elapsed between the date of ths preparaticn of the Hud.son Bay Company's Memorandum (1856) and tliat to which tJie Table in this work refers (1871) have not produced, in fact, any notable change In the number, or mode of life of the aboriginal populations depending on hunting and fishing in the unsettled regions of British North America.

Thia was in 1857. Sinee, the relations of the Hudaon's Bay Company -with the American territories have been altered. In fulfilment of the Treaty of 1863 (ratified and proclaimed in 1864), for thefinalsettle-

^ment of the claims of the Hudaon'a Bay and of the Puget's bound Agricultural Companies, the decision of %h« appointed Oommissioners waa arrived at in 1869, awarding to the Hudson's Bay Company S450;000 and t<Athe Pujet'a Sound Agricultural Company $200,000 for the releare and transfer of all their possessory rigo^ta and claims. 

,..

 

p. lxxiiv

REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITl'EE OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS, 1857.

(C: Appendix No. 2,pages,B65, 3G6 and 3G7.) 

"INDIAN POPULATION. 

 

+ several pages of tables and text to p. lxxxv​

 

____________

Source:

Census of Canada 1870-71

volume 4 (of 5)

see "Introduction", pages lii to lxxxv

 

Available through DSP: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2016/statcan/CS98-1871-4.pdf


​Also available via Early Canadiana Online (better quality scan)

 

About the 1870-1871 Census:

"The Census of 1870-81, the first since the passing of the British North American Act, was taken under the authority of the 'Census Act' assented to on the 12th May, 1870 (33 Victoria, Chapter XXI). The publication of the results of this extensive work is accompanied with comparative statements abstracted from reports of former censuses, and from other statistical resources, after the manner followed in older countries. ... The edition will consist of five volumes in which is compressed a mass of information more than three times as much as was contained in the reports of the Censuses of 1861 for the same four Provinces ... Each volume will contain remarks referring to the tabular matter therein published, and each will be furnished with indexes and explanations necessary to facilitate reference thereto"--Introd., v. 1.

Permanent link to this Catalogue Record:  http://www.publications.gc.ca/pub?id=9.827965&sl=0


About volume 4: 

Contains summaries of Censuses from 1665 to 1871 for territories constituting the British North American Provinces in 1871. The Introduction also summarizes "statements of population" from various other sources, some earlier.​ Also includes a fairly lengthy discussion of aboriginal statistics gathered to that date and asserts that the total numbers of aboriginal people had been overstated in many accounts. 

 


Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada

AANDC defines "Aboriginal peoples" as:

The descendants of the original inhabitants of North America. The Canadian Constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal people — Indians, Métis and Inuit. These are three separate peoples with unique heritages, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs.

            By clicking on the link to the interactive map you can see a map that gives information about many First Nations groups

B.C. Statistics

Information on how BC Statistics defines "Aboriginal" for statistical purposes can be found here.

Census Statistical Profiles of Aboriginal Peoples

  • 1996 [Census] Statistical Profiles by College Region With Emphasis on Labour Market and Post-Secondary Education Issues
    • on-vs off-reserve
    • Aboriginal vs non-Aboriginal;
  • Broken down by College Region only. Excel summary tables also available for each region.
  •  2001 [Census] Statistical Profiles by Area and Group With Emphasis on Children, Labour Market and Post-Secondary Education Issues
  •   Four PDF profiles for each region (Province, College, Health Authority, Health Service Delivery Area): [Excel summary tables also available for each region.]
    •  Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal
    •  Off-Reserve First Nations and Métis
    •  Status Indians
    •  Nisga'a

 

  •  2006 [Census] Statistical Profiles by Area and Group With Emphasis on Children, Labour Market and Post-Secondary Education Issues
  •  Three PDF profiles for each region (Province, College, Health Authority, Health Service Delivery Area):
    • Aboriginal vs non-Aboriginal
    • First Nations vs Metis
    • Registered vs non-Registered

  Excel summary tables also available for each region.

2011 National Household Survey (NHS) Aboriginal Population Profile
NHS is the replacement for the Long-form Census questionnaire

FNIGC (First Nations Information Governance Centre)

FNIGC Data Online :   First Nations Information Governance Centre

 Free online access to published aggregate data. in the form of charts, tables and graphs that can be exported for use in presentations, reports and academic papers, beginning with the [2008/10] First Nations Regional Health Survey.

First Nations Regional Health Survey ("RHS")

First Nations Regional Early Childhood, Education and Employment Survey ("REEES")

Starting in fall 2013 the REEES will be carried out in 250 reserves and northern communities across Canada by FNIGC Regional Partners and trained regional field workers. The FNIGC received a mandate to conduct the REEES from the Assembly of First Nations Chiefs in Assembly (per Resolution 19-2011) during their Annual General Meeting in Moncton, New Brunswick in June 2011. There is limited overlap in questions with Statcan's Aboriginal Peoples Survey:

  • 20% overlap
  • 30% similar
  • 50% not on APS at all

The REEES will survey some 30,000 First Nations people on-reserve and in northern communities. These will be broken down into   several categories:

  •  children 11-years-old and under
  •  youth aged 12 to 17, and
  •  adults (18-years-old and up)

Statistics Subject Guide

For resources and help with Statistics please visit the Library subject guide for  Statistics.