Skip to Main Content

APA Citation: Personal communications

Personal Communications

  • Personal Communications are ONLY cited in the text
  • They include all works that cannot be recovered by a reader, such as: personal interviews, telephone conversations, text messages, online chats, emails, live speeches (unrecorded), classroom lectures (unrecorded), memos, letters, your class notes, etc. 


In text citation: ... (C. Ferner, personal communication, December 12, 2019) ... (J. Williams, classroom lecture ENGL 1202, October 11, 2019) ... (B. Smith, text message, November 2, 2019)