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APA Citation: Artificial Intelligence: ChatGPT etc.

Artificial Intelligence: ChatGPT, Jasper Chat, Bard AI, DALL-E, etc.

  • Before using ChatGPT or other generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools, make sure to check with your instructor if you can do so, and if so what exactly is permitted for a specific assignment

  • If you are permitted to use ChatGPT or similar AI, evaluate the content carefully and critically. Content produced may contain incorrect or biased and therefore unreliable information. These tools may also infringe on your privacy (e.g. collecting data about you and sharing it), so use them with caution. Consider using more authoritative, reliable, secure sources instead
  • If you are permitted to use AI-generated content, make sure to cite the information you use in the text and in the reference list. We also recommend adding an acknowledgement


Check the APA style guide for more information on citing Artificial intelligence

Check our Artificial Intelligence Libguide for acknowledgement examples


If you do not quote or paraphrase: Example:

You may make a general statement in the text in which you provide details about the date, AI tool, the URL and the prompt(s) you used to generate the output.

Include the output as an appendix.

For example, if you wanted to critically review the quality of the output (such as how well the AI tool summarized the plot of a story), but don't quote or paraphrase from the output.

I generated text on February 13, 2023, using ChatGPT software ( and the prompt "Summarize the plot of A Christmas Carol in the style of H. P. Lovecraft" (see Appendix A for the full transcript). 


If you quote, paraphrase or use the full output that was generated:  Example: 


You must include a reference (following the general format of a software reference, as seen in Section 10.10 of the Publication Manual).


We also recommend that you include the following:

  • Written acknowledgment of the generative AI tool used and for what purpose
  • The prompt(s) used to generate the content 
  • A note about your modifications
  • Include the original output with your submission
  • In-text citation and bibliographic citation 


Check our Artificial Intelligence Libguide for acknowledgement examples

 Sample Chat using ChatGPT


Reference list entry: 

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Feb 13 version) [Large language model].

In-text citation:

According to a ChatGPT-generated response, effective intercultural communication requires ...... (OpenAI, 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript).

According to a ChatGPT-generated response by Open AI (2023), effective intercultural communication requires ...... (see Appendix A for the full transcript). 


  • Because DALL-E is an AI tool that is being used to create the image, treat DALL-E like software, equipment, or an apparatus that needs a reference (see Section 10.10 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association).
  • In the figure caption for the image (and, if desired, in the text, if you discuss the image or the methodology of its creation), mention the AI tool used, the prompt used to generate the image and an in-text citation to the author of the algorithm (in the example below, this is OpenAI). 
  • Remember to also include a Reference List entry


For an AI-generated image you use in your coursework, we suggest this format in the text: 

Reference list entry: 

Figure 3

Bear in the Mountains

OpenAI. (2022). DALL-E (Version 2) [Artificial intelligence system].

Note:  The image was generated using DALL-E (OpenAI, 2022) with the prompt "A naturalistic image of a bear in a meadow with wildflowers on a sunny day and snow-capped mountains and forests in the background."