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APA Citation: Audiovisual Media

Audiovisual media

  • This section includes works that have visual and audio (e.g. films, YouTube videos), only audio (e.g. music, audio podcasts), or only visual components (e.g. artwork, photographs, PowerPoint slides). 
  • The template depends on whether the work stands alone (e.g. a film, podcast, entire music album) or whether it is a part of a greater whole (e.g. a single TV episode, a podcast episode in a series, a single song from an album)
  • Authors are as follows: 
    • Film - director
    • TV series - executive producer
    • TV series episode - writer and director of the episode
    • Podcast - host of the episode
    • Webinar - instructor/host
    • Classical music album or song - composer
    • Modern music album or song - recording artist
    • Artwork - artist
    • Online streaming video - person or group who uploaded the video
    • Photograph - photographer
  • Add a descriptive label in square brackets after the title, for example [Song]
  • The source element will contain details of publication depending on the item, such as the production company for films, TV series or podcasts, the label for music albums, the location of an artwork, the name of the hosting site for a streaming video, etc.
  • These works include films, videos, TV series, TED Talks, webinars, music albums, YouTube and other streaming videos, podcasts, photographs, infographics, artworks, maps, PowerPoint slides, and other whole works



Template for works that stand alone

Author, A.A. (function if applicable). (Date). Title [Description]. Publisher if different from author. https://xxxxx

Wenders, W. (Director). (2003). Wings of desire [DVD]. MGM Home Entertainment.

McNair-Landry, S. (Director). (2009). Never lose sight [Video documentary]. National Film Board of Canada.

Top Tenz (2017, July 4). Things about Canada the rest of the world finds weird [Video]. YouTube.

Hicker, R. (2011). Moss rain forest [Photograph]. CanadaPhotos.Info.

Tugnoli, L. (2019). [Photograph series of the tragic famine in Yemen]. The Pulitzer Prizes.

Newsroom Kunststoffverpackungen. (2019, March 18). Plastics Europe - facts 2018 - excerpt "recycling" - March 2019 [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

Daniels, C., Kehoe, I., Ludbrook, A., & Wilson, S. (n.d.). Empowering monograph creation: New directions for creative and scholarly publishing [PowerPoint slides]. Moodle.§ion=2

BC Ferries. (n.d.). Ferries for the next generation [Infographic]. British Columbia Ferry Services.

Morissette, A.  (1995). Jagged little pill [Album]. Maverick Recording Company.

Hart, J. (2010-2013). The dance screen [Red cedar panel]. Audain Art Museum, Whistler, BC, Canada. 

Hart, J. (2010-2013). The dance screen [Red cedar panel]Audain Art Museum, Whistler, BC, Canada.

King, A., & Cole. B. (Cartographers). (2008). Canada [Map].

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from Vancouver, BC, Canada to Portland, OR, United States]. Retrieved from 


In text citation: ... (Wenders, 2003) ... (McNair-Landry, 2009) ... (Top Tenz, 2017) ... (Hicker, 2011) ... (Tugnoli, 2019) ... (Newsroom Kunststoffverpackungen, 2019) ... (Daniels et al., n.d.) ... (BC Ferries, n.d.) ... (Morissette, 1995) ... (Hart, 2010-2013) ... (King & Cole, 2008) ... (Google, n.d.) 

Note: if quoting also include a locator if possible, for example a time stamp or slide number:  (Wenders, 2003, 1:05:15) ... (McNair-Landry, 2009, 12:52) ... (Daniels et al., n.d., slide 5)


  • For music, it is usually not necessary to say how you listened to it (e.g. iTunes, Spotify, SoundCloud, CD, etc. Include a URL only if that location is the only means of retrieval (e.g. if a song is only available on a specific website)
  • You may add additional information, such as the Executive Producer for a TV series, if they differ from the Writer and/or Director (as in the first example)



Template for works that are part of a greater whole

Author, A.A. (function). (Date). Title of individual item (No. if appllcable) [Description]. In Title of greater wholePublisher if different from authorhttps://xxxxx

Martin, A. (Writer), & Earnshaw, P. (Director). (2010). Jenny from the block [Television series episode]. In T. Fortier, I. Schneeberg, A. Martin, & J. Sinyor (Executive Producers), Being Erica. Temple Street Productions.

Johnson, F., & Simone-Bowen, L. (Hosts). (2019, July 23). The most famous Vancouverite you never heard of [Audio podcast episode]. In The secret life of Canada. CBC Radio.

Morissette, A.  (1995). All I really want [Song]. On Jagged little pill. Maverick Recording Company.


In text citation: ... (Martin & Earnshaw, 2010) ... (Johnson & Simone-Bowen, 2019) ... (Morissette, 1995)

Note: if quoting also include a locator if possible, for example a time stamp:  (Martin & Earnshaw, 2010, 25:10) ... (Johnson & Simone-Bowen, 2019, 10:35) ... (Morissette, 2019, 2:19)