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Indigenous Studies

Indigenous Studies is an interdisciplinary field grounded in the languages, histories, geographies, and contemporary experiences of Indigenous peoples

Sixties Scoop and Millennium Scoop

Sixties Scoop Millennium Scoop: Overview

Sixties Scoop

The sixties scoop refers to a period of time (late 1950's to 1980's) when the Residential School system was being replaced by a foster care and/or adoption system. Indigenous children were often place non-Indigenous homes. Many children were not informed of their Indigenous identity. This system has been seen as another attempt by government agencies to eradicate Indigenous ways of life, disconnect families, and assimilate Indigenous peoples.

Millennium Scoop or Birth Alerts

Birth alerts are a government imposed system to flag "at risk families" before a child is born. Unfortunately more than half of these alerts have been for Indigenous families. Birth alerts often result in new born children being apprehended and placed in foster care, even if the parents want to raise the child. Many "at risk families" are not given an opportunity to demonstrate their ability to raise their child and are not provided support systems to ensure family success. Birth alerts in BC have been discontinued as of September 2019. Birth alerts have been seen as another attempt to disconnect families and assimilate Indigenous peoples. 

Sixties Scoop and Millennium Scoop: Web Resources

  1. Indigenous Foundations: Sixties Scoop
  2. BC Bans Birth Alerts (Tyee News)

Sixties Scoop and Millennium Scoop: DVDs and Streaming

  1. Finding Cleo - 33min - Curio podcast 
  2. Richard Cardinal: Cry From a Diary of a Metis Chlid - 29min - NFB


Book cover : Silence to strength : writings and reflections on the Sixties Scoop / edited by Christine Miskonoodinkwe Smith
Book cover: Ohpikiihaakan-ohpihmeh — Raised Somewhere Else: A 60s Scoop Adoptee's Story of Coming Home
Book cover: A generation removed : the fostering and adoption of indigenous children in the postwar world
Book cover: Bitterroot a Salish memoir of transracial adoption
Book cover: Bearskin diary : a novel