Peer-reviewed journals are often called scholarly or academic journals. They are different from popular magazines. Articles in peer-reviewed journals:
You'll find helpful info and videos to help you tell the difference between scholarly (peer-reviewed) and other journals on the CRIM 1208 research guide.
Once researchers complete an empirical study, they will usually (try to) publish their findings in a peer-reviewed journal. These are often called primary or original research articles because they are the first-publication of new research findings.
Secondary sources of information describe, explain, interpret or summarize primary sources. These include encyclopedias, book reviews, commentaries, literature reviews, and any books or journal articles that simply discuss the original (previously-published) work of others. Although these can be very helpful sources for identifying primary research articles, they are not primary studies themselves.
You'll find helpful info and videos about primary research articles in Criminology on the library's CRIM 1208 research guide.
A primary (original) research article will usually be divided into several labeled sections. The screenshot above is from the video "What is Original (Primary) Research in Criminology?". You can jump to the 3:10 timestamp to watch the "Sections of an original research article" segment of the video.
The names of the parts may vary, but a primary research article will always include a methodology section explaining how the research was conducted (i.e. what type of empirical method was used). Most secondary journal articles do not include a methods section.
|Title of the article
|Simultaneously treatable and punishable: Implications of the production of addicted subjects in a drug treatment court
|Title of the journal
|Addiction Research & Theory
|Volume and issue numbers
|vol. 22, no. 4
"Using data from a 25-month critical ethnography in the Ottawa DTC [Drug Treatment Court], this article explores how participants in DTCs are constructed as addicted subjects."
Note: critical ethnography is a qualitative research method
APA-formatted citation for this article:
"Research using methods such as participant observation or case studies which result in a narrative, descriptive account of a setting or practice."
SOURCE: Qualitative research. (2002). In R. Drislane & G. Parkinson (Eds.), Online Dictionary of the Social Sciences. http://bitbucket.icaap.org/dict.pl?term=QUALITATIVE%20RESEARCH
Less than 10% of research articles published in criminology and criminal justice journals use qualitative research methods.
SOURCE: Copes, H., Tewksbury, R., & Sandberg, S. (2016). Publishing qualitative research in criminology and criminal justice journals. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 27(1), 121-139. doi:10.1080/10511253.2015.1109131
This video walks you through the differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods with 3 clear examples. From Utah State University Libraries
Find a partner; you can work in pairs or groups of three.
The librarian (Chris) will assign each group a number.
Look at the table on the shared Google Doc and open the research database assigned to your group number.
Search in your assigned database for an original, qualitative research article published in the last 5 years on this topic:
Marijuana use and impaired driving in Canada
Enter an APA citation for a relevant article into the table.
Although every scholarly article will include a literature review, some journal articles are entirely literature reviews. These can be excellent sources to look at first for your own literature review. The authors will have identified important research on the subject and synthesized the findings. A good lit review can help you to narrow the focus of your research topic, and give you citations to primary research articles on your topic. Just make sure to check the date of the lit review. You want to find a fairly recent one.
Try starting your search in one (or more) of the databases listed below. KPU Library subscribes to over 200 research databases covering different subjects and types of information. You can filter the list of databases by subject.
Be sure to limit your search to peer-reviewed (scholarly) journal articles using the filter available in each database.
But watch out! these filtered results will include articles such as book reviews and editorials which have not been peer-reviewed. Always look at the article for the typical features of a scholarly article such as an abstract and extensive in-text citations.
If you have not found anything useful in the Library's databases (though that's very unlikely, especially if you use the search tips shown in the next box on this guide!), you may want to check Google Scholar.
Google Scholar lists articles from a wide variety of scholarly journals. It also includes references to book chapters and many other types of sources.
Google Scholar does not usually provide the full-text for articles for free, so you might get prompted to pay for access to an article.
Do not pay for articles! It's quite likely that the KPU Library subscribes to the journal. If we don't, we can get it for you free of charge.
This search will ONLY tell you whether Kwantlen users have access to a specific journal title, and link you to a list of available issues. This tool will NOT search for individual articles on a specific topic. For that, you need to use either Summon or one of the library's research databases.
Here is an example of how to cite a scholarly journal article (which has a DOI code) in APA style: