Skip to Main Content


More on Chicago

For more information on Chicago Style including examples for books, articles, websites, and other non-musical formats, please see:

Tips on Footnotes, Musical Examples, and the Bibliography

Bibliography: a list of all your sources (books, articles, web sources, scores) should be placed at the the end of your paper.  The citations should be formatted in the bibliography style, and ordered alphabetically by the author's last name.  The heading is usually Bibliography.  See the Chicago Manual section 14.61-65.

Discography: Recordings are usually listed in a separate section titled Discography. Place this after your bibliography. Chicago Manual 14.263.

Footnotes: Superscript numbers in your text refer to numbered footnotes at the bottom of the page. Chicago Manual 14.24.

Shortened Footnotes: The first time you cite a source in a footnote, provide the full details. Subsequent citations of the same source should be shortened. The usual format is: author's last name, Shortened Title, page number.  Chicago Manual 14.29-34.

Musical Examples:  Musical examples require a caption, a footnote, and a bibliography entry.

The caption should be placed above the example and should include the example number (label examples in the order they appear in your paper), the composer's name, piece's title, the measure numbers, and any other information required to identify the example's location within the score.

Place a footnote number at the end of the caption, with a full footnote citation at the bottom of the page.  Include a full bibliography citation in your Works Cited list.


Find out what it is and simple ways to avoid it!

Common examples of plagiarism:

  • Copying sentences, paragraphs, data or visuals without properly citing their source
  • Quoting material without proper use of quotation marks (even if otherwise cited appropriately)
  • Paraphrasing or summarizing information from a source without proper acknowledgement;
  • Paying someone for writing the assignment
  • Listing a source in the bibliography/reference list that was not cited in the assignment

How do I avoid plagiarism?

Remember: You MUST provide an in-text citation and an entry in the Works Cited or list of References for ALL of the examples of quoting paraphrasing, or summarizing from other sources.

Find out more about @ Plagiarism