Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Music

Chicago Style for Music

Discographies, filmographies, and the like are specialized bibliographies that list (and sometimes annotate) materials such as audio recordings, video recordings, and multimedia packages. 

Discographies are generally presented as a separate list, either preceding the bibliography or as an appendix.

Click here for a sample discography (note that you must be logged in to access this link)

NOTE:  the Chicago Manual does not provide detailed guidance on inserting musical examples into your essays. The following guidelines have been approved by Dr. Tones, but always check with your instructors about their preference of citing these sources.

 

Musical examples require a caption, a footnote, and a bibliography entry.

The caption should be placed above the example and should include the example number (label examples in the order they appear in your paper), the composer's name, piece's title, the measure numbers, and any other information required to identify the example's location within the score. Place a footnote number at the end of the caption, with a full footnote citation at the bottom of the page.  Include a full bibliography citation in your Works Cited list.

 

Caption:

Example 1  Frédéric Chopin, Ballade No. 2 in F Major, Op. 38, mm. 1-61

 

 

Footnote:

                1. Chopin, Frédéric, “Ballade No. 2 in F Major,” in Complete Ballades, Impromptus & Sonatas, ed. Carl Mikuli (Mineola, NY: Dover, 1998), 17.

 

Bibliography Entry:

Chopin, Frédéric. “Ballade No. 2 in F Major.: In Complete Ballades, Impromptus & Sonatas, edited by Carl Mikuli, 17-25. Mineola, NY: Dover, 1998.

From a Database

1. Josephine Baker, vocalist, “Dinah,” by Henry Akst, Sam Lewis, and Joe Young, recorded October 1926, with Jazz Oliver et ses Boys de Folies-Bergere, track 4 on Un Message Pour Toi: Original Paris Recordings 1926-1937, Odeon Ki 922, 2002, Naxos.

Baker, Josephine, vocalist. “Dinah.” By Henry Akst, Sam Lewis, and Joe Young. Recorded October 1926. With Jazz Oliver et ses Boys de Folies-Bergere. Track 4 on Un Message Pour Toi: Original Paris Recordings 1926-1937. Odeon Ki 922, 2002, Naxos.

 

From a Streaming Service

2. Norman Blake, “You Are My Sunshine,” by Jimmie Davis and Charles Mitchell, track 1 on O Brother Where Art Thou?, Mercury, 2000, Soundcloud

Blake, Norman. “You Are My Sunshine.” By Jimmie Davis and Charles Mitchell. Track 3 on O Brother Where Art Thou? Mercury, 2000, Soundcloud

 

From a CD

3. Norman Blake, “You Are My Sunshine,” by Jimmie Davis and Charles Mitchell, track 1 on O Brother Where Art Thou?, Mercury, 2000, compact disc.

Blake, Norman. “You Are My Sunshine.” By Jimmie Davis and Charles Mitchell. Track 3 on O Brother Where Art Thou? Mercury, 2000, Compact disc.

 

Live performances cannot be consulted by readers, and therefore it is generally sufficient to mention details in the text and in the notes. In addition to specifying the name and location of the venue and the date of the performance, include as much information as needed to identify the performance, for example the name of the vocalist, conductor, director, the title of the work, information about the work, other contributors, and any other relevant information.

Example:

In a performance of Lin-Manuel Miranda’s Hamilton at the Richard Rodgers Theatre in New York on February 2, 2016, . . .

Footnote:

                1. Hamilton, music and lyrics by Lin-Manuel Miranda, dir. Thomas Kail, chor. Andy Blakenbuehler, Richard Rodgers Theatre, New York, NY, February 2, 2016.

Online Reference Works - See Chicago Manual section 14.233.

  • Well known Online Reference Works, such as Grove Music Onine, are usually only cited in the notes
  • If no date of publication is given, include a date of access.
  • Include the doi if available; if there is no doi, use the stable link (the same link provided in the "cite" feature).

 

Footnote:

                1. Grove Music Online, s.v. "Schumann, Clara," by Nancy B. Reich, updated 23 Feb., 2011,  https://doi.org/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.25152.

More on Chicago

For more information on Chicago Style including examples for books, articles, websites, and other non-musical formats, please see:

Tips on Footnotes, Musical Examples, and the Bibliography

Bibliography: a list of all your sources (books, articles, web sources, scores) should be placed at the the end of your paper.  The citations should be formatted in the bibliography style, and ordered alphabetically by the author's last name.  The heading is usually Bibliography.  See the Chicago Manual section 14.61-65.

Discography: Recordings are usually listed in a separate section titled Discography. Place this after your bibliography. Chicago Manual 14.263.

Footnotes: Superscript numbers in your text refer to numbered footnotes at the bottom of the page. Chicago Manual 14.24.

Shortened Footnotes: The first time you cite a source in a footnote, provide the full details. Subsequent citations of the same source should be shortened. The usual format is: author's last name, Shortened Title, page number.  Chicago Manual 14.29-34.

Musical Examples:  Musical examples require a caption, a footnote, and a bibliography entry.

The caption should be placed above the example and should include the example number (label examples in the order they appear in your paper), the composer's name, piece's title, the measure numbers, and any other information required to identify the example's location within the score.

Place a footnote number at the end of the caption, with a full footnote citation at the bottom of the page.  Include a full bibliography citation in your Works Cited list.

Plagiarism

Find out what it is and simple ways to avoid it!

Common examples of plagiarism:

  • Copying sentences, paragraphs, data or visuals without properly citing their source
  • Quoting material without proper use of quotation marks (even if otherwise cited appropriately)
  • Paraphrasing or summarizing information from a source without proper acknowledgement;
  • Paying someone for writing the assignment
  • Listing a source in the bibliography/reference list that was not cited in the assignment

How do I avoid plagiarism?

Remember: You MUST provide an in-text citation and an entry in the Works Cited or list of References for ALL of the examples of quoting paraphrasing, or summarizing from other sources.

Find out more about @ Plagiarism