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Chicago Citation Style: Footnotes/Endnotes


  • Notes are single-spaced and placed at the bottom of the page (footnotes), or at the end of the paper (endnotes) on a new page with the heading "Notes". Place a superscript number after the end punctuation of your citation in the text, like this.1  The note itself is preceded by the same number as a regular number followed by a period. 
  • The first note referring to a work should always be a full note. Subsequent notes for the same work can be shortened but usually include the last name of the author(s), the key words of the main title, and the page number. However, if the note follows directly after a short citation, only the author and page number are needed (the use of "ibid." for these instances is now discouraged).
      1. Iris Nowell, Painters Eleven: The Wild Ones of Canadian Art (Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 2010), 25.
      2. Yale D. Belanger, ed., First Nations Gaming in Canada (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2011), 53.
      4. Nowell, Painters Eleven, 28.
      5. Nowell, 37.
      6. Nowell, 55-56.
      7. Belanger, First Nations Gaming, 68.
      8. Nowell, Painters Eleven, 28.
      9. Belanger, First Nations Gaming, 42.
      10. Belanger, 73.
  • If your note includes a DOI or URL that must be broken at the end of a line, break it after a colon or a double slash but before a tilde (~), period, single slash, comma or hyphen. (14.18)