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APA Citation Style_OLD: Multiple Authors

Reference list entries

References
Clarkson, S., & Mildenberger, M. (2011). Dependent America?: How Canada and Mexico construct U.S. power. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., ... Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249- 267.
Songer, D. R., Johnson, S. W., Ostberg, C. L., & Wetstein, M. E. (2012). Law, ideology, and collegiality: Judicial behaviour in the Supreme Court of Canada. Montréal, Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press. 

Two Authors or Editors

RULE: If a work has two authors or editors, cite both names every time. Combine the two names with the word "and" if you use the names in the sentence, but combine them with "&" if you use them in parentheses. Include a page number if you quote directly.


EXAMPLE:

Clarkson and Mildenberger (2011) conclude that "neither Canada nor Mexico can initiate a trade war without risking its own prosperity" (p. 55).

The economic wellbeing of both Canada and Mexico is dependent on their relations with the United States (Clarkson & Mildenberger, 2011).  

Three to Five Authors or Editors

RULE: If a work has three, four, or five authors or editors, cite all names the first time. For later citations, cite only the surname of the first author or editor followed by the words "et al." (meaning "and others"). If you use the names in the sentence, put the word "and" before the last author or editor; if you use the names in parentheses, put "&" before the last author or editor instead.


EXAMPLE  FOR FIRST CITATION: (this is a direct quote, hence page numbers are included)

Songer, Johnson, Ostberg,  and Wetstein (2012) found that "the actual voting behaviour of the justices is related to the political attitudes they bring to the court" (p. 174).

Recent research shows that "the actual voting behaviour of the justices is related to the political attitudes they bring to the court" (Songer, Johnson, Ostberg, & Wetstein, 2012, p. 174).

 

EXAMPLE FOR SUBSEQUENT CITATIONS TO THE SAME SOURCE: (this is a paraphrase, hence no page numbers are needed):

Songer et al. (2012) concluded that personal ideology was only part of the Canadian appointment process of a justice.

Personal ideology was only part of the Canadian appointment process of a justice (Songer et al., 2012).

More Than Five Authors or Editors

RULE: If a work has six or more authors or editors, cite only the surname of the first author or editor followed by "et al." Include a page number if you quote directly.


EXAMPLE:

Gilbert et al. (2004) stipulate that "................" (p. 252).

The study concluded that ...... (Gilbert et al., 2004).