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APA Citation Style_OLD: Direct Quotes

Quotes: Basics

Always provide the following if available:

  • author(s)
  • year
  • specific page number(s) or other locator (such as a section name, chapter/paragraph heading and/or number for online sources) in your in-text reference (see examples). If shortening a long heading, put it in quotation marks. Note that the word page is abbreviated to p. and pages to pp.; the word chapter is written in full, but paragraph is abbreviated to para.

Reference list entries

References
O'Neill, D. (n.d.). Early theories of evolution: 17th-19th century discoveries that led to the acceptance of biological evolution. Retrieved from http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve
Sloan, P. (2008). Evolution. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2010 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries
/evolution
Smail, D. L. (2008). On deep history and the brain. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Quotes less than 40 words

RULE: Enclose short quotations (less than 40 words) in double quotation marks and incorporate them in your sentence.


EXAMPLE WITH PAGE NUMBERS AVAILABLE:

According to Smail (2008), Darwinian evolution "follows a rhythm dictated by the rapidity of generational turnover" (p. 99). 

One opinion is that Darwinian evolution "follows a rhythm dictated by the rapidity of generational turnover" (Smail, 2008, p. 99). 

In 2008, Smail stated that Darwinian evolution "follows a rhythm dictated by the rapidity of generational turnover" (p. 99). 

 

EXAMPLES USING AN ONLINE SOURCE WITH NO PAGE NUMBERS AVAILABLE:

It seems "that there are still substantial theoretical issues at stake that may alter the understanding of evolutionary theory in important ways" (Sloan, 2008, Summary and Conclusion section).

Sloan (2008) concluded "that there are still substantial theoretical issues at stake that may alter the understanding of evolutionary theory in important ways" (Summary and Conclusion section).

Unlike some other scientists, Darwin "did not believe that evolution follows a predetermined direction or that it has an inevitable goal" (O'Neill, n.d., "Darwin," para. 17).

O'Neill (n.d.) points out that Darwin  "did not believe that evolution follows a predetermined direction or that it has an inevitable goal" ("Darwin," para. 17). 

Quotes more than 40 words

RULE: Display a longer quotation (more than 40 words) in a double-spaced block with no quotation marks, indented 5-7 spaces or 1/2 inch from the left margin without a paragraph indent. Note that the closing punctuation mark precedes the page citation.


EXAMPLE: 

Smail (2008) concluded the following:

Culture is made possible by the plasticity of human neurophysiology. With this insight, we can finally dispense with the idea, once favored by some historians, that biology gave way to culture with the advent of civilization. This has it all backward. Civilization did not bring an end to biology. (pp. 154-155)