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APA Citation Style_OLD: Audiovisual Media

Audiovisual media

Videos/DVDs, streaming videos, motion pictures, audio & television broadcasts, television series episode, podcasts, photos, maps, Power Point (APA manual 7.07)


Contributor (function). (year). Title [Medium]. Location: Studio or distributor.

Contributor (function). (year). Title [Medium]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx


Wenders, W. (Producer/Director), & Dauman, A. (Producer). (2003). Wings of desire [DVD]. Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment.

McNair-Landry, S. (Director), & Rocher, A. (Producer). (2009). Never lose sight [Video documentary]. Retrieved from

Jackson, J. (n.d.). Tom Brokaw explains Canada to Americans [Video file]. Retrieved from

Mansbridge, P. (Chief Correspondent). (2012, December 19). The national [Television broadcast]. Toronto, Canada: CBC News.

Martin, A. (Writer), & Earnshaw, P. (Director). (2010). Jenny from the block [Television series episode]. In T. Fortier, I. Schneeberg, A. Martin, & J. Sinyor (Executive Producers), Being Erica. Toronto, Canada: Temple Street Productions.

Borelli, M. (Host), & Ross, C. (Creator/Producer). (2012, August 27). Babel [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Hicker, R. (Photographer). (2011). Moss rain forest [Photograph]. Retrieved from

Lion and tiger [Photograph]. (2009). Retrieved from /wallpaper/Lion-and-Tiger/

National Resources Canada. (Cartographer). (2007). The atlas of Canada: British Columbia [Map]. Retrieved from /british_columbia /referencemap_image_view

Kecman, S. (n.d.). Laboratory technique I: Dilution  [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved December 19, 2014, from

  • For individual television or radio episodes, follow the format as for a chapter in a book, but list the writer and director in the author position and the producer in the editor position (as in the Being Erica example).


  • If there is no contributor, move the title and medium in the author position (as in the Lion and tiger example)


  • In text citation examples (for more information, see the In-text Citations tab):
    • .....(Wenders & Dauman, 2003)
    • .....(McNair-Landry & Rocher, 2009)
    • .....(Jackson, n.d)
    • .....(Mansbridge, 2012)
    • .....(Martin & Earnshaw, 2010)
    • .....(Borelli & Ross, 2012)
    • .....(Hicker, 2011)
    • .....(Lion, 2009)
    • ....(National Resources Canada [NRC], 2007) for the first citation; then you may abbreviate to:.....(NRC, 2007)


  • When quoting, include a timestamp, slide, or other locator where available to guide the reader to a specific point in the work, e.g.:
    • .....(Wenders & Dauman, 2003, 1:05:15)
    • .....(McNair-Landry & Rocher, 2009, 12:52)
    • .....(Jackson, n.d., 5:30-7:15)
    • .....(Borelli & Ross, 2012, 0:55)
    • ... (Kecman, n.d., slide 5)

Writer last name, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).


Davis, J., & Mitchell, C. (2000). You are my sunshine [Recorded by N. Blake]. On O brother where art thou? [CD]. Nashville, TN: Mercury Records.

Morissette, A.  (1995). All I really want. On Jagged little pill [CD]. Hollywood, CA: Maverick Recording Company.

  • In the second example, writer and artist are the same person


  • In text citation examples (for more information, see the In-text Citations tab):
    • include side or track numbers, e.g.: evident in “You are my sunshine” (Davis & Mitchell, 2000, track 3)