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APA Citation Style_OLD: Welcome

APA Tutorial, Blog & FAQ

From the American Psychological Association:

APA Style Basics Tutorial

APA Style blog (answers to many style questions from APA style experts)

FAQs from Royal Roads University

Other APA Style Guides

From the American Psychological Association:

       How to reference the DSM

       APA's errata to the 6th edition

       One-experiment paper


From the OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue:

APA style information with student sample paper


When writing a research paper, you must always cite any sources that you have consulted. You must acknowledge when you are using the ideas, information, arguments, phrases or any other intellectual or creative output by another person. Not to do so is referred to as plagiarism. Any form of plagiarism is a serious offense that comes with disciplinary consequences that can largely be avoided by always citing your resources. . For more information see KPU's Policy ST2, entitled Student Academic Integrity Policy, and the related Procedures for Dealing with Academic Integrity Violations.

APA citation style is often used for papers in the Social Sciences (e.g. sociology, psychology and criminology). It uses parenthetical citations for in-text references and a reference list at the end of the paper.

The content for this short introductory video was created by Crystal Rose, Public Services Librarian, Memorial University Libraries, in partnership with the university's department of Distance Education, Learning & Teaching Support. It is available under a Creative Commons Attribution license. The content was not altered:

The examples in this guide are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). It covers frequently used citation forms in APA style. For more detailed information refer to the print copy of the manual, available in the Reference Collection at all campuses, call number BF 76.7 P83 2010. 

Also check: Concise Rules of APA Style, call number BF 76.7 C66 2010.

Why do we cite?

  • to distinguish previous from new thought
  • to give credit to the person whose ideas you used
  • to respect intellectual property
  • to help a reader locate the source(s) you used
  • to show that you have investigated your topic well
  • to avoid plagiarism


Common examples of plagiarism:

  • Copying sentences, paragraphs, data or visuals without citing their source
  • Quoting material without proper use of quotation marks (even if otherwise cited appropriately)
  • Paraphrasing or summarizing information from a source without acknowledgement;
  • Paying someone for writing the assignment
  • Listing a source in the bibliography/reference list that was not cited in the assignment

Find out more about Plagiarism


Ulrike Kestler's picture
Ulrike Kestler

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